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A selection of the materials in the Resources library on blindness and eye disease surveys, including the Nigeria & Pakistan national blindness surveys, rapid assessments of avoidable blindness and surveys using the Key Informant methodology.

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  • RAAB software package. RAAB is a free software package for data entry and analysis of rapid assessment of avoidable blindness surveys. The package contains Windows software, supporting documentation and training materials. Free download from the Community Eye Health Journal website
  • Research Summary: The Key Informant Child Disability Project in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Summary of findings from this study. Free download:
  • The Key Informant Child Disability Project in Bangladesh and Pakistan Main Report 2013. Full report on this study which set out to test whether voluntary, community-level Key Informants (KIs) could be trained to effectively identify children with moderate or severe physical impairments, sensory impairments (visual and hearing) or epilepsy in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Free download:
  • Report on the Nigeria national blindness and visual impairment survey 2005-2007. Summary of findings from the national blindness and visual impairment survey in Nigeria conducted by ICEH between 2005 and 2007. Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling, with probability proportional-to-size procedures, was used to select a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the population. A total of 13,599 persons aged 40+ were examined across the country (response rate 89.9%). Free download from ICEH: NigeriaSurvey.pdf
  • WHO Childhood blindness software. The WHO Childhood blindness software (Windows XP, 2003) is to analyse eye examination records for children with blindness and low vision. The eye examination record is designed for recording causes of visual loss amongst children in blind school and hospital based studies and in population based surveys. Free download:

Community Eye Health Journal articles

  • Patients and glaucoma: what are the challenges? Mohhamed Abdull discusses his field research which is aimed at understanding how people’s awareness of glaucoma relates to the severity of glaucoma they have when they arrive at the hospital as well as their ability to manage the disease. Free access:
  • Instruments for cataract surgery: results from our survey. For any operation, including cataract surgery, the appropriate instruments must be available and in good working order. If instruments are not available, or are blunt, or do not function properly, it may be necessary to delay or postpone surgery. Using such instruments in an operation can result in a poor outcome, or even pose a risk to surgeons and their assistants. Free download from:
  • Ophthalmic equipment survey 2010: preliminary results The delivery of ophthalmic services at all levels is completely dependent on equipment: from the simple torch light to the highly sophisticated equipment used for diagnosis and treatment.
    In order to achieve the aims of VISON 2020: The Right to Sight and eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020, it is not enough to have the right equipment available at all levels of service delivery; there has to be a good maintenance and repair support service.
    The purpose of this equipment survey (commissioned by this journal) was to obtain an overview of the key issues and challenges faced by eye health providers with regard to their equipment.
  • Community Eye Health MSc dissertations. Seven abstracts from dissertations of students at the International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who graduated in 2008.
  • Rapid assessment methods in eye care and their use in assessing refractive errors. Rapid assessments have been used in a broad range of health and development areas for decades. The methodology for Rapid Assessment of Refractive Errors (RARE) and the associated procedures are being piloted in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh.


Research articles

  • Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a population-based survey. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 1;8(8):e70009. Ocular morbidity (OM) describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. Free access:
  • Advice about diet and smoking for people with or at risk of age-related macular degeneration: a cross-sectional survey of eye care professionals in the UK. BMC Public Health. 2013 Jun 10;13:564. In the absence of a cure, there has been considerable interest in attempts to prevent or reduce the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by targeting particular modifiable risk factors. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional survey of the current practice of UK eye care professionals in relation to advice given on diet and other lifestyle modifications for patients with or at risk of AMD Free access:
  • The role of social networks in the governance of health systems: the case of eye care systems in Ghana. Health Policy Plan. 2013 Mar;28(2):143-56. Epub 2012 Mar 12. Efforts have been increasingly invested to improve local health systems' capacities in developing countries. We describe the application of innovative methods based on a social network analysis approach. The findings presented refer to a study carried out between July 2008 and January 2010 in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. Free abstract from PubMed
  • Why do people not attend for treatment for trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia? A study of barriers to surgery PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Aug;6(8):e1766. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001766. An analysis of the barriers to attendance among TT patients in Ethiopia, the country with the highest prevalence of TT in the world. Free access from PLoS:
  • Surgical output and clinic burden of glaucoma in Lagos, Nigeria. J Glaucoma. 2012 Jul 23. Epub ahead of print To estimate the outpatient clinic burden and surgical workload related to glaucoma in Lagos, Nigeria. Free abstract from PubMed

Literature reviews

  • Trachoma survey methods: a literature review. Bull World Health Organ. 2009;87:143-51. This review highlights the benefits of cluster random sampling (CRS) being simple, efficient, repeatable and giving population-based prevalence estimates of all signs of trachoma. The authors advocate for continued use of CRS as the survey design of choice for trachoma control programmes and propose ways of improving future surveys based on this method. Free download from PubMed Central:
  • Review of recent surveys on blindness and visual impairment in Latin America. Br J Ophthalmol 2008 92(3):315-319. Review of the recent data on prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Latin America. Free abstract from PubMed:
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